Social needs seem to affect the vitality—the research scope, directions and methods—of intercultural pedagogy [ 5 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 ]. Indicating the current most important problems and research orientations in intercultural education means also making an attempt at eliciting the fields of permanence and changeability in typical behaviour patterns in multicultural communities.
These issues are worth the attention due to both cognitive and practical aspects, for example, the usefulness in shaping modern intercultural education. In this context, it seems important to carry out a critical analysis of the concepts of social, cultural and educational policy, which are formulated in Poland and in many other countries and which cause that many different solutions concerning education in multicultural societies are applied. Not only the relatively long tradition of different varieties of multicultural education but also contemporary experiences confirm that, by protecting a particular culture, this education gives rise to several problems.
What clearly proves the failure of many different kinds of multicultural education are the conflicts in the countries, which are recognized as the models of democracy, for example, the USA or France. The isolation of large social groups, signs of exclusion, stigmatization, poor living standards, social dissatisfaction, and the feeling of discrimination are partially perpetuated by multicultural education, which functions alongside the main current of life [ 4 ]. The analysis of numerous studies undertaking this subject matter [ 30 , 31 , 32 ] confirms the existence of two different approaches to the evaluations and consequences of the occurring changes:.
Applying the reflective perspective, in contrast to the radical pessimistic approach, seems to be the right direction in pedagogical research into contemporary intercultural education. The multisided approach of theorists and researchers to this issue, as well as the occurring modifications concerning its aims, tasks and functions, makes it possible to notice and understand the problems and insufficiencies of multicultural education and to find the ways leading to positive solutions and appropriate activities.
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Searching for the model models of modern intercultural pedagogy becomes an important educational challenge and a frequent subject of expert research. Intercultural pedagogy is most often approached in these studies as:. Intercultural pedagogy implemented in the conditions of cultural differentiation takes into account both the transition from ars educandi to pedagogy and the above-discussed comprehension of key areas of intercultural pedagogy.
Thus, the intercultural perspective in pedagogy constitutes two intersecting paths. In accordance with this:.
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One of the forms of applying this attitude is self-awareness. This liberty constitutes the specificity and essence of man;. The individual anticipates them and makes them concrete, whereas the elements attract the individual. This is not freedom towards culture but within it [ 38 ].
In the suggested approach, what should be important in the education are the processes of culturation, as well as of primary and secondary socialization. On the one hand, they enable rooting into culture the assimilation of the existing cultural values and gaining a particular place in the community. At the same time, this process is a kind of self-identification which the individual must be able both to develop along with gradual maturing and to re-define during the whole life.
Among others, the following are the sources of information about oneself, which might become the foundation of shaping the feeling of identity of the individual in natural and constructed educational situations:. The perception of the social world comprises already acquired knowledge of co-occurring different human qualities and the knowledge of different types of people and their typical behaviour patterns which results in an individual way of perceiving others.
This process also involves stereotypes and prejudices, which function among individual and their negative attitude to others, including ethnic groups and nations. The analysis of empirical data concerning Polish learners allow for stating that they have a well-crystallized and rather strongly negative attitude to most national minorities in Poland and that the applied attitudes of unwillingness towards others maintain for a long time, contrary to their peers from Western Europe.
This phenomenon can also have the following interpretation: individuals achieve control over their social roles through the process of communication. As Jerome S. Although meanings are in the mind, they have their source and references in the culture in which they are created. This cultural situating of meanings ensures their negotiating nature and immersion in communication. This assumption results in changes in educational theories, which concern such areas as:. According to Jerome S.
Its fundamental task is supporting children in learning the use of tools for generating meanings and in their adjustment to the world and in changing this world dependently on the needs. The presented discussion is aimed at becoming aware of the need to promote intercultural education as a current of the modern pedagogical theory and educational practice, compliant with the current requirements and offering prospects for the desired changes in future.
Intercultural education is a chance for overcoming stigmatization, the feeling of alienation and the fear of others. It is also a chance for shaping the multidimensional enriched identity, in which national or religious identity constitutes an important part but does not suppress the other areas of identity, does not require rejecting the people and values not compliant with the orthodox far from life in the multicultural world images of the group and individual identity. What becomes a necessary value in the contemporary world is the openness of cultures, which does not mean the lack of selecting the acquired influences.
Only a friendly turn towards other cultures, a really personalistic view on other societies and at the same time on particular individuals who make up these societies can lay the foundations for building a new intercultural space [ 45 ]. However, this cannot mean uncritical acceptance of all cultural influences.
As the current globalization processes cannot be inhibited, this issue will not lose its topicality. What is needed to prevent a lot of conflict-rising tension resulting from these processes is an idea, which will indicate the rules of conduct. It is universalism, open to all topics, questions, accusations, which can become such an idea. Yet, this does not mean that universalism has a hostile attitude to diversity. Such type of the whole that is appropriate for an open process of reasoning tolerates and praises individuality, differences and even contradictory views. Aiming at universalism in the new reality is not merely a whim but a necessity.
It becomes a chance for a conflictless and fruitful encounter with the other.
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What seems important while heading for this is not to resign from the own traditions. Being rooted in the local ethnic culture offers the possibility to accept universal values and, at the same time, it protects individuals from diluting their identity. The theoretical suggestions and practical experiences defined as intercultural education seem to undermine the ways of reasoning and the educational activity, which have been perpetuated for over a century. Understanding the chances offered by intercultural education and accepting the applied educational practices require time.
They also necessitate authentic engagement of many social groups, which have a strong influence on shaping human attitudes. In spite of many difficulties, making use of these chances is worth a lot of effort [ 48 ]. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Edited by Olga Bernad-Cavero. Edited by Donna Farland-Smith.
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Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Abstract The study presents an assessment of the achievements and problems of intercultural pedagogy as an important educational sub discipline, which has been developing intensively in Poland—particularly since the s. Keywords pedagogy intercultural pedagogy multicultural education intercultural education scientific schools in Poland. Introduction For almost last three decades, the studies on intercultural education have become a part of the Polish social discourse concerning the issues of multiculturalism, the feeling of national, civil, ethnic, religious and cultural identity or the relationships between people of different nationalities and cultures.
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The collected experiences of Polish intercultural education as a pedagogical sub discipline Although Polish intercultural studies have been developing only since the s, they refer to a rich tradition and a well-developed network of notions concerning Polish education, elaborated by the leading scientific centres.
In the case of Polish studies, the components of intercultural education are the following: a clearly outlined concept of intercultural education and the understanding of pedagogy pertaining to this field of education.
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Referring to the definition formulated by Laurence Kohlberg and Rochelle Mayer [ 9 ], it can be assumed that what is dealt with is the legible ideology of intercultural education; within educational reflection and practice, a particular relatively precise language is used: in other words, a particular notional network. For many years, the discussed theories and concepts have been successfully applied by intercultural researchers, for example, to design research methodology and to interpret research results [ 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 ]; the historical and contemporary output of multi- and intercultural education has some comparative approaches and the approaches which constitute the syntheses of earlier accomplishments.
Girls studied the domestic arts, including cooking and sewing. Most of the school's food was grown on Haskell Farm, where students were expected to participate in the various stages of agricultural production. By , the secondary curriculum had been accredited by the state of Kansas and Haskell began offering post-secondary courses. Industrial training became an important part of the curriculum in the early s. By Haskell had evolved into a post-high school vocational-technical institution.
Academic reform occurred under the direction of Haskell's first indigenous superintendent, Dr. Henry Roe Cloud who is credited with encouraging the introduction of culturally appropriate approaches to indigenous education. Roe Cloud's progressive leadership foreshadowed the shift of official indigenous educational policy, from assimilation to self-determination. Indeed, Roe Cloud encouraged Haskell faculty to, "build up curricula for ability levels, different interests, and needs of the student, and turn out eventually Indian leaders who can manage their own individual lives, understand civic responsibility and know how to enrich tribal and family life.
Haskell's high school program was gradually phased out, with the last class graduating in Haskell became Haskell Indian Junior College in , and began offering a junior college curriculum. The following year, Haskell changed its name to Haskell Indian Nations University after receiving accreditation to offer a Bachelor of Science degree in elementary teacher education. Haskell is now fully accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools and offers a number of degrees: Associate of Arts, Associate of Sciences, Associate of Applied Sciences, and a Bachelor of Science degree in elementary education.
Several baccalaureate programs have been developed including Native studies, environmental science and engineering, natural resources management, and business. Today, Haskell has an average semester enrollment of In addition to the accoutrements of academic ritual, graduation ceremonies now include pow-wows and eagle feather headdresses. In terms of academic programming, Haskell actively integrates American Indian and Alaskan Native culture into all its curricula. Symbolizing both continuity with the past and the changed nature of Haskell, the Medicine Wheel is a landscape design of sacred means.
It symbolizes Native spirituality and the sacred nature of the cosmos.