Manual Les États-Unis de 1917 à nos jours (Histoire) (French Edition)

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  1. Bibliography in: The Dispersion
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Les coureurs des bois et les premiers explorateurs mettent en place la traite des fourrures. Les innovations technologiques et l'emploi de machines-outils y sont donc plus importants qu'ailleurs.

Bibliography in: The Dispersion

Vers , l'industrie emploie un tiers de la population active. Il existe une concurrence sauvage entre les entreprises. Dans les chemins de fer la guerre des tarifs fragilisent les compagnies. En , la loi Sherman interdit les trusts.


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Les capitaines d'industrie choisissent alors la holding comme forme de concentration. Il porte au pouvoir Abraham Lincoln qui met en place un tarif protectionniste. Les grands magnats de l'industrie gagnent de plus en plus d'influence dans la vie politique du pays. Ils y trouvent travail et instruction. This was more demanding, but it yielded rewards. On the basis of his historical inquiries, he was able to claim that, contrary to Hobbes, the state of nature does not amount to a state of war. War arises only once societies have already been formed; only when people enter into society do they feel the will to power and it is this power-impulse that produces the state of war.

Far from being a condition that necessitates the formation of society, war is the product of its formation. He makes this point in order to highlight another: it is the threat of war, both within and between societies, that founds the need for law [23]. Montesquieu explains that laws exist in order to regulate three main types of social relations: civil right, concerning relations between citizens; political right, concerning relations between governors and governed; and the right of nations, concerning relations between states.


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  • These are drawn together through a union of individual wills, and this union is the institution of the state [24]. Having explained the social conditions leading to the formation of the state, he turns to his major task: to specify the character of the laws made through this institution. The aim of this work was not simply to classify the types of laws made by particular regimes: those, the positive laws, are merely the products of that regime. His ambition, in short, was to reveal the fundamental laws of the political domain.

    Montesquieu had set himself the task of finding a new understanding of the concept of law. The significance of this claim is revealed when he argues that each type of order formed in the world operates according to its own fundamental laws. The laws of the physical world are certainly different from those that regulate human interaction. But even within human conduct, there are different modes of interaction. The critical point is that his monumental inquiry is designed with the precise objective of discovering the fundamental laws that maintain the autonomy of the political worldview.

    A study of positive law is important, but it should not be confused with a deeper inquiry: the search for the fundamental laws of the political domain. But to appreciate why we must move beyond the liberal interpretation that his objective was to show the importance of curtailing political power by operation of law. His true purpose was to demonstrate that, in order to generate political power, the political must be framed by the legal. He recognized that the type of authority needed to govern modern societies required that their governmental forms be institutionally complex. Just as Bodin had shown that there could be no universal form of scientific jurisprudence in his day, one that was derived from Roman law [30] , so Montesquieu demonstrates that authority cannot be maintained by imposing a strict legal uniformity [31].

    Condorcet would later criticize Montesquieu for failing to speak of the justice or injustice of the laws [32]. Historical inquiry, Rousseau maintained, can only replicate historical injustices and legitimate existing power formations [35]. Rather than locating the origins of political order in war and insecurity, Rousseau begins his inquiry into droit politique by first seeking the principles of legitimate government. The essence of the political, he suggests, cannot be derived merely from the desire to have order: if law is defined as the will of the sovereign then legal study cannot yield the principles of legitimate political order.

    The challenge of discovering les principes du droit politique is to understand how law can be transformed from an instrument that bolsters the hierarchical relationship of sovereign and subject into a medium by which liberty and equality can be realized. In fact, Rousseau wanted to specify an autonomous conception of the political in rational terms.


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    • This is not purely philosophical, but a practical exercise of discovering the principles of political right. These principles might not be extracted from historical experience, but they count as such only if they can be put to work in actually-existing societies [37]. Like Hobbes before him, Rousseau invokes the idea of a social contract.

      But he felt that Hobbes erred in treating the foundational pact as a trade-off between liberty the absence of constraint and law the will of the sovereign. For Rousseau, the modern state is legitimate only if at its foundation natural liberty is replaced by political liberty. Liberty for Rousseau is not the mere absence of constraint: liberty entails self-government. This sense of political liberty is not opposed to law: liberty and law are reconciled in a state where people live under laws they themselves have made. This claim, that liberty entails autonomy, makes the concept of political right the key to understanding legitimate government.

      The question then arises: how can political right reconcile freedom and government? Rousseau answers this in stages. The sovereign is the public person formed by the union of all i. But how can this public person of the state be said to have a single will? Rousseau answers this question in two further stages. He argues, first, that the foundational pact substitutes a political equality for whatever physical inequality nature may have established: unequal in nature, individuals become political equals by virtue of the pact.

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      Only as equals are they transformed from a multitude into a people. Secondly, this political equality becomes the precondition for the formation of a single will. Each citizen acquires the same rights over the others as are granted over themselves. This notion of the general will expresses the will of the sovereign. This concept of the general will, expressing the principle of maximum equal liberty, is established as the fundamental law of the modern state [39]. Once the principle of equal liberty is acknowledged as the fundamental law, the concept of law is transformed.

      Rather than conceiving law the command of the sovereign as imposing a restriction on freedom, it is an expression of freedom. Since this can be achieved only by acting in accordance with this basic law, whoever refuses to obey it must be constrained to do so.

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      Having identified the basic law, Rousseau specifies its operative principles. He explains that since sovereignty expresses the general will its exercise cannot be transferred, represented or divided. Sovereignty cannot be possessed or represented by any agent; it permeates the entire order and expresses the autonomy of the political.

      The constitution is therefore analogous to the organization of a living body: it becomes a unity only in the synthesis of those individual decisions and actions which encompass the entire complex of institutional order. His objective is to specify a similar type of law droit politique to that of Montesquieu. Bodin and Montesquieu tried to identify the principles of political right, but they had both sought to distill them from historical experience.

      Rousseau disagrees on the method. Yet he does follow Bodin in recognizing the critical distinction between sovereignty the exercise of the law-making power and government the office responsible for the execution of the law. The fundamental law of the political domain, he maintained, was the realization of equal liberty in conditions of solidarity. French political jurists might not have agreed on the principles of political right but by the mid-eighteenth century they had made considerable advances in devising a common conceptual framework through which these principles could be expressed.

      They recognized the autonomous character of the political domain and the need to devise an immanent structure of public law based on the concepts of state, sovereignty and constitution. It remained to show how their principles of political right could be embedded in the framework of modern nation-states. But when the Revolution came the basics of the conceptual framework, and not just the elements of political right, were subjected to intense debate.

      But my objective here is only to consider the degree to which, during the revolutionary period, sound principles of political right had the prospect of being institutionalized in a new constitutional arrangement. Faced with the imminent bankruptcy of the state, the king had convened a meeting of the Estates-General.

      Prime responsibility for the dire state of affairs, he suggested, lay with the nobility. By virtue of their entrenched feudal privileges, the nobility had in effect seceded from the nation. Far from being a vital part of the nation, they had become in effect its enemies. Their declaration demanded that sovereign authority be transferred from the king to the nation.

      The meeting of the third estate, comprising the legitimate representatives of the sovereign people, must be transformed into the national assembly. These dramatic claims initiated what became a political and legal revolution. He argues, contrary to Bodin and Montesquieu, that a nation is not some cultural artefact defined by laws and customs and sanctioned by history. The nation the state has its origin in a social contract that transforms an aggregate of isolated individuals into a unified body politic possessed of a single general will.

      The nation comprises the entire body of citizens and its will is sovereign. Its will is always legal. The nation exists prior to the constitution, and its government serves only at the pleasure of the national will. The nation determines the constitutional form of the state by a pure exercise of sovereign will. Where he departed from him was over the formation of this national will. This was generated by the need for a political division of labour in an advanced modern state, in contrast with the constitutions of the ancient republics Rousseau extolled [55]. A representative body must take the place of an assembly of the entire nation and be charged with making a constitution.

      But the Revolution soon veered out of control. This was a bourgeois constitution whose general purpose was to put distance between the legislature and the sovereign people, not least by dividing between an active and passive citizenry [58].